In the previous part we have implemented quite a few instructions for our virtual machine. In this part, we’ll further extend its capabilities by adding some comparison instructions, the ability to do jumps and local variables. The relevant code for this part can be seen on github.

Comparison instructions

Let’s add a few simple instructions to our repertoire: we’re going to add some instructions to compare two numbers. In particular, we’re going to add the instructions ISEQ, ISGT, ISGE, that implement respectively a == b, a > b, a >= b. Note that this last instruction is a bit redundant, since it can be implemented by a > b OR a == b, but it simplifies our “bytecode”.

The tests and the implementation are very similar to the already existing arithmetic instructions and we aren’t going to discuss them in detail. You can see the relevant commit here; it should be easy enough to understand.


Now we’re going to implement two different instructions to alter the execution flow of the program, specifically JMP and JIF. The first of these new instructions, JMP, will unconditionally alter the instruction pointer; it’s basically a GOTO. The second instruction, JIF, will alter the instruction pointer if and only if the stack contains a true value (a non-zero element as the head). Both of them will be followed by the new address.

Let’s see the first test in detail:

    public void testUnconditionalJump() {
        // address:       0    1  2     3    4
        CPU cpu = new CPU(JMP, 3, HALT, JMP, 2);
        assertProgramRunsToHaltAndInstructionAddressIs(cpu, 3);

At the begininng our CPU will have the instruction address set to 0. After the first JMP instruction, the address will be 3. Next, our CPU will find another JMP instruction that will alter the instruction pointer to 2. Finally, the HALT instruction will stop our CPU and leave the instruction pointer to 3.

Let’s see instead the test for the JIF instruction:

    public void testConditionalJump() {
        // address:       0     1  2    3  4    5     6  7    8  9
        CPU cpu = new CPU(PUSH, 1, JIF, 5, POP, PUSH, 0, JIF, 4, HALT);
        assertProgramRunsToHaltAndInstructionAddressIs(cpu, 10);
        // If the program hits the POP, we'd have an error

Here we first push 1, meaning “true”. Therefore the first JIF instruction alters the instruction pointer to 5, skipping over the POP instruction. Afterwards we find another PUSH instruction that adds 0, a false value, so the next JIF instruction is executed but the instruction address is not changed. Therefore, we reach the address 9, where we find an HALT.


Before seeing how we can use these new instructions to implement an if or a while construct, let’s discuss variables. At the moment, our program can only access the head of the stack. This is quite limiting; imagine just about any program that has to use three variables… We need to extend the capabilities of our language.

Therefore we’re going to add a new concept to our CPU: a set of local variables. To keep things simple, we’re going to allow for unlimited local variables, identified by a number. Specifically, we’re going to implement two new instructions:

  • LOAD, that will push to the stack the value of the given variable;
  • STORE, that will pop the stack head and save it in the given variable.

Here are the tests:

    public void testLoadVariableNotInitialized() {
        CPU cpu = new CPU(LOAD, 0, HALT);
        assertProgramRunsToHaltAndInstructionAddressIs(cpu, 3);
        assertStackContains(cpu, 0);

    public void testStoreVariable() {
        CPU cpu = new CPU(PUSH, 42, STORE, 0, HALT);
        assertProgramRunsToHaltAndInstructionAddressIs(cpu, 5);
        assertVariableValues(cpu, 42);

    public void testStoreAndLoadVariable() {
        CPU cpu = new CPU(PUSH, 42, STORE, 0, LOAD, 0, HALT);
        assertProgramRunsToHaltAndInstructionAddressIs(cpu, 7);
        assertStackContains(cpu, 42);
        assertVariableValues(cpu, 42);

    @Test(expected = InvalidProgramException.class)
    public void testLoadNeedsOneArgument() {
        CPU cpu = new CPU(LOAD);;

    @Test(expected = InvalidProgramException.class)
    public void testStoreNeedsOneArgument() {
        CPU cpu = new CPU(STORE);;

    @Test(expected = InvalidProgramException.class)
    public void testStoreNeedsOneItemOnTheStack() {
        CPU cpu = new CPU(STORE, 0, HALT);;

    private void assertVariableValues(CPU cpu, int... expectedVariableValues) {
        Frame frame = cpu.getCurrentFrame();
        for (int varNumber = 0; varNumber < expectedVariableValues.length; varNumber++) {
            int expectedVariableValue = expectedVariableValues[varNumber];
            assertEquals("Checking variable #" + varNumber, expectedVariableValue, frame.getVariable(varNumber));

The convention is that uninitialized variables will contain the value 0. We have created a new, trivial class called Frame to store the current variables:

public class Frame {
    private final Map<Integer, Integer> variables = new HashMap<>();

    public int getVariable(int varNumber) {
        return variables.getOrDefault(varNumber, 0);

    public void setVariable(int varNumber, int value) {
        variables.put(varNumber, value);

The code to make this work is quite simple: in our CPU class we have added a new Frame variable:

public class CPU {
    // rest as before
    private Frame currentFrame = new Frame();
    // in the instruction switch:
           case LOAD: {
               int varNumber = getNextWordFromProgram("Should have the variable number after the LOAD instruction");

           case STORE: {
               int varNumber = getNextWordFromProgram("Should have the variable number after the STORE instruction");
               currentFrame.setVariable(varNumber, stack.pop());

With these changes, our tests pass.


We have now enough instructions to implement if, for and while statement in our bytecode; however, for space reasons, the discussion about them will be left for the next post.

Update: part 5 is out now.